COVID-19 Clinical Resources and Pertinent Research
A regularly updated list of the most useful COVID-19 clinical resources, the most significant research publications, and reliable news. To contribute, click the plus button on the left. Short URL: bit.ly/C19Res

Epidemiology and Immunology

  1. General Epidemiology
    1. CDC: Summary of Guidance for Public Health Strategies to Address SARS-CoV-2
    2. CEBM: Global COVID-19 Case Fatality Rates
    3. Cochrane COVID-19 Reviews of Infection Prevention and Control Measures
    4. Imperial College London Centre for Global Infection Disease Analysis COVID-19 Reports
    5. Recurrent Outbreaks (“Second and Third Waves”) Are Likely
    6. Effects of Introducing and Relaxing Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions on SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Are Delayed by 1–3 Weeks
    7. Mask-Wearing, Even with the Use of Non-Medical Masks with Only 20% Efficacy, Substantially Impacts Outbreak Control and Reduces Infections, Hospitalizations, and Death by Nearly 50% (Public Health Measures Infographic)
    8. COVID-19 Symptomatic Infection Fatality Rate (IFR-S) in the U.S. is 0.8–1.5% and the Case Fatality Rate (CFR) is ~6%
    9. COVID-19 CFR for Patients Requiring Invasive Mechanical Ventilation is 35–45%; ~58% for those Requiring ECMO
    10. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2–Specific Antibodies Among Adults Remains Very Low at ~14%
    11. Greater than 75% of Americans Are at Risk of Severe COVID-19 Based on the Prevalence of Known Comorbidities
    12. SARS-COV-2 Clusters Have Been Traced to Flights, Parties, Nightclubs, Bars, Karaoke Bars, and Gyms
    13. Testing of Wastewater is Useful in Monitoring and Predicting Infection Rates
    14. Household Transmission is Likely a Leading Cause of Infection, Occurs Quickly, and Predominantly Originates from Adults But Can Originate from Children
    15. Symptom Screening Fails to Identify Most Children with COVID-19 and Asymptomatic Children Appear to Shed Viral RNA for 2 to 3 Weeks

  2. Viral Transmission and Shedding (Overview)
    1. Dismantling Myths on the Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2
    2. SAGE: SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Routes and Environments
    3. CEBM Papers on the Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19
    4. SARS-CoV-2 is Shed During Respiration, Toileting, and Fomite Contact and is Commonly Aerosolized (Diagram)
    5. SARS-CoV-2 Can Remain Viable and Infectious in Airborne Aerosols for Hours and Viable on Surfaces for Days
    6. The Mean Incubation Period of COVID-19 is 5.7 Days (Diagram)
    7. Viral Load Peaks in the Early Phase (~1 d Before Symptom Onset) with Upper Respiratory Viral Shedding Peaking 4-6 Days After Symptom Onset; Viral Load May Be Correlated with Severity (Diagram)
    8. SARS-CoV-2 is Transmitted by Presymptomatic and Asymptomatic Individuals; Asymptomatic Cases Account for ~20–33% of All Infections
    9. Symptomatic Neonates, Children, and Teenagers Shed Infectious SARS-CoV-2
    10. Detection of Viral RNA via PCR Following Symptom Resolution Does Not Indicate Infectiousness; Mild Patients Are Generally No Longer Infectious 10 Days After Diagnosis, Severe Patients 20 Days After Diagnosis
    11. SARS-CoV-2 RNA Has Been Found in Stool, Indicating the Potential for Fecal-Oral Transmission
    12. Biting Insects Do Not Pose a SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Risk to Humans or Animals
    13. No Evidence that Seasonality or Warmer Temperatures Reduce Transmission of SARS-CoV-2
  3. Viral Dynamics and Immune Response
    1. General Immunopathology (Diagram 1 / Diagram 2 / Diagram 3 / Diagram 4)
    2. Humans Produce Neutralizing Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 (Diagram)
    3. Magnitude of Neutralizing Antibody Response Correlates with Disease Severity; Late Onset May Be A Risk Factor for Disease Severity (Diagram)
    4. Presence of Anti-Spike or Anti-Nucleocapsid IgG Antibodies Is Associated with a Substantially Reduced Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection in the 6 Months Following Initial Infection
    5. Memory B Cell Response (Diagram)
    6. Duration and Natural Decline of Neutralizing Antibody Response
    7. Role of Autoantibodies
    8. SARS-CoV-2 T Cell Immunity (Diagram 1 / Diagram 2)
    9. Infection with Betacoronaviruses Appears to Induce Multispecific and Long-Lasting T Cell Immunity to the Structural Nucleocapsid Protein, that Appears to Neutralize SARS-CoV-2; Antibodies Generally Not Cross Reactive
    10. Select Reports of Reinfection

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